• A significant consideration in Operation
Theatres is the control of aerosols, anesthesia gases and smoke.
In Operation Theatres, however the main sources have an indoor
origin are the patient, the surgical team and equipment. The
anesthesia gases dispersed in Operation Theatres are also
considered as pollutants. The anesthesia gases are dispersed in
the environment through problems in the equipment and from the
exhalations of the patient. Some gases used in the surgery.
During surgery the highest concentration of gases is on the
floor. However, with the movements of people these gases can be
mixed with room air and inhaled by the surgical team.
The concentration of gases in the Operation Room is critical and
needs to be controlled; otherwise the productivity and quality
of the work of the surgical team can decrease, and in the medium
and long term health problems may occur.
• Halothane gas, for example, has a high
toxicity and can affect the central nervous system. The gas
concentration is controlled by the air change rate in the
Operation Theatre by dilution to acceptable levels.
• The smoke can be generated by laser or electro surgery unit.
“Research studies have confirmed that this smoke plume can
contain toxic gases and vapours such as benzene, hydrogen
cyanide, and Formaldehyde, bioaerosols, dead and live cellular
material (including blood fragments), and viruses. At high
concentrations the smoke causes ocular and upper respiratory
tract irritation in health care personnel, and creates visual
problems for the surgeon.
• In some critical situations the indoor air
in Operation Room will be ultra-cleaned, for example, for
orthopedic surgery, traumas, implants, burn patients, and other
situations where the patient is immune compromised. Otherwise,
when the surgery is septic, there should be also a higher
control in the indoor environment, to protect the adjacent
• Controlled Ozone is injected in the
mainstream air in the return air duct. It is present in the
indoor space at the times at low concentration. When it
encounters chemical pollutants, it almost instantly oxidize them
and keeps the indoor air free of chemical pollutants VOC as
interferes with metabolism of cell multiplication of fungi
resulting in the reduction of fungi along which is responsible
for vide range of indoor related allergies.
• Use of Ozone Generator in Operation
Theatre Fumigation will reduce the electricity consumption &
also no long hour sterilisation before and after operation.
Source of Indoor Air Contaminants in Hospital
▪ The Surgical Team.
▪ To reduce/eliminate the microbial contaminants.
▪ Maintain very good Indoor Air Quality (IAQ).
▪ Safety of Patient & Surgical Team.
Indoor Air Contaminants Purification Solutions for Hospitals
• Operation Theater Sterilization.
• Operation Theater Fumigation.
• Disinfection for entire Hospital through AHU Ozonation.
• Disinfection for ICU & ICCU.
• Disinfection for Doctor’s Rooms.
• Cold Storages & Morgue.
• Disinfection of medicine & equipment sores.
Advantages of Ozonation in Hospitals
• Ozone is a very powerful oxidant, sterilizes spaces very fast.
• Advance technology for fumigation.
• Ideal for OT, ICU, research centers, labs, Pharma, bio-medical
• Ozone is generated at site & can be on line.
• Ozone is generated from ambient air, using electricity.
• After treatment residual Ozone is transformed into harmless
• No toxic or harmful by product generation.
• Easy to retrofit in existing & new installations.
• User friendly.
How Ozone can reduce
Electricity Consumption & achieve Energy Efficiency in
AHU system takes “Outdoor/Fresh Air” to
dilute Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) and reduce Carbon dioxide
(CO2) within acceptable limits. Conventionally Fresh Air is used
to improve Indoor Air Quality (IAQ).
Load profile of fresh air
» 60% to cool moisture … wasted energy
» 28% to cool nitrogen …..wasted energy
» 12% to cool oxygen …..the only useful component in fresh air
Solution to reduce the “ Fresh Air Intake”:
» By using controlled injection of ozone.
» Oxidation of VOC is performed by ozone and not by oxygen of
the fresh air.
» Ozone is more powerful oxidizing agent than oxygen.
» In the presence of a more powerful oxidant, less powerful
oxidant does not have the chance to perform oxidation, until no
more of the former is available.
» Oxygen of the fresh air is preserved and not spent in
performing the task of oxidizing the VOC, which is now
transferred to ozone.
» Available oxygen is now used entirely to maintain CO2.
» Intake of fresh air is reduced drastically. Thus fresh air
requirement goes down to 5CFM or less per person.